|Empire of Ruthenia|
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The subdivisions of the imperial state is administrative in nature: the political power is held by the central government State and by the whole Empire. Municipalities, Provinces, Governorates and Autonomous Cities are a sequence of levels of government, according to a hierarchical system, beginning from the top until they invest all Empire.
The bulk of meaning of local government is the fact that the local aristocracy and the best parts of the commoners have not only the interest, but also the right of dealing honestly with local affairs. Thus, the righteous governor of the Empire, the Basileus, shares with Imperial Subjects the local authorities in order to avoid the misconduct of corrupt officials and to ensure the best government to the local partitions and incarnations of the Empire: as at the central level the Emperor rules alongside the Peers, the most illustrious commoners and the rest of aristocracy, also at the lesser jurisdictions these three components are entitled to help the Basileus local governors.
Ruthenia has a unitary rather than federal system of government, in which local jurisdictions largely depend on national government financially. The Ministry of Internal affairs intervenes significantly in local government by appointing heads of local governments, as do other ministries. This is done chiefly financially because many local government jobs need funding initiated by national ministries. The result of this power is a high level of organizational and policy standardization among the different local jurisdictions allowing them to preserve the uniqueness of their government.
Heads of local governments are appointed by the Basileus, after proposal of Prime Minister, among the Prefects, and approved by local legislatures. If the legislature disapproves the nominee, it is dissolved.
Ruthenia have one Protectorate or Principate, Thracia, a confederated state of the Empire and a Principate ( ηγεμονία; i̱gemonía) with is own administration protecting the interests of those living in and around Thracia, the administration of the principate is in charge of a Exarch (ἔξαρχος; exarchos) elected by the Basileus and can designate its own elected council secretaries sent by the empire and local governors, three Themas were created to the best imperial administration
governorates (αποκεντρωμένες διοικήσεις, Thematas), comprising two or three regions, run by a secretary of the Imperial Court or subordinated called Domestikos, assisted by an advisory council drawn from the regional governors and the representatives of the municipalities. the only excepcion is the Thema Basileion, the administration falls in a Secretary called Megadomestikos (δομέστικος), this because to their size and proximity to the emperor..
The second level is composed of the Provinces(περιφέρειες, periféreies; sing. περιφέρεια, Eparches), run by a regional governor (περιφερειάρχης, perifereiárchis) and a regional council (περιφερειακό συμβούλιο, perifereiakó symvoúlio), being assigned by the Basileus. The Provinces are divided into regional units (περιφερειακές ενότητες, perifereiakés enótites), usually but not always coterminous with the former prefectures. Each regional unit is headed by a vice-regional governor (αντιπεριφερειάρχης, antiperifereiárchis), drawn from the same political block as the regional governor.
The first level of government is constituted by the municipalities (δήμοι, dímoi; sing. δήμος, dímos), which have resulted from merging several former municipalities and communities of the defunct Parsian Empire. They are run by a mayor (δήμαρχος, dímarchos) and a municipal council (δημοτικό συμβούλιο, dimotikó symvoúlio), elected by the people of the dimos every 10 years. The municipalities are further subdivided into municipal units (δημοτικές ενότητες, dimotikés enótites) and finally into communities (κοινότητες, koinótites). Although communities have their own councils, their role is purely advisory to the municipal-level government. the dimos are internally subdivided into Districts and Mandment. These subdivisions are not local government bodies, but only provincial decentralization agencies. There are 360 dimos in the Empire.
The principate or Igemonía are the most important division of the Empire, is considered as a slave nation or a nation dependent on the imperial administration and is directly subordinate to the imperial family, the principate administration is entrusted to a Exarchos, a The main government exerts an exarch appointed by the Basileus, in charge of the management of imperial rule and is the representative in the territory, the exarch is responsible not only for the regional administration, but ensures the economic and political interests of the empire, may appoint local councilors for better management, as well form their own committee and advise on the appointment of Eparches and Domestikos in the Principate.
The only principate in the empire is Thracia
Main Article: Mount Agios
The island of Mount Agios is considered part of the Imperial territory however, has a self whose current status was achieved recognition in 1050 by the government of St. Stephanos and the rules governing the community wrote: Jurisdictions of the Holy Mountain of Agios. These regulations became law by Basilika decree in 3217 after the liberation of the Selloi and Consists of 20 monasteries with a capital and administrative center in Kyrie, where the civil governor (Nómarchos) who represents the Empire is. Besides the monasteries, there are 12 small communities of monks, called sketae and various chapels.
The Themata or Governorate are the higher territorial level authority of the Imperial Government. Each region is a territorial entity with its own statutes, powers and functions. All Themas have a official emblem and flag. . The Regional political bodies are:
- The Domestikos, a representative of the central government and head of local government.
- A advisory council (perifereiakoú symvoulíou) drawn from the regional governors and the representatives of the municipalities.
The exception in the Themata system is the imperial Thema Basileion, choosen by the Basileus himself for the proximity of the capitalThe Themata has a Regional Council which exercises legislative power over matters for which every single Region is responsible. The administrative and executive functions are assigned to the Regional Board, formed by the Regional Adermans as well as the Regional Governor.
These bodies are mandatory for the regions, for which the statutes and regional laws cannot otherwise provide the imperial laws.
The Region has regulatory powers in respect of matters on which region has exclusive jurisdiction and those in which the jurisdiction between the state and region is concurrent in nature. It has regulatory powers in the exclusive State competence as it is delegated. The Domestikos along with the Council shall exercise the regulatory powers in areas of exclusive state competence is delegated to the regions.
The region, through regional laws, may delegate administrative functions to lowwe bodies. The region has financial autonomy of income and expenditure, establishes and implements their own taxes and revenues, according to the principles of financial policy estabilished by the Basileus. Decides about transfers from tax revenues attributable to its own territory.
The Empire can replace for bodies of the regions in case of failure to comply with international treaties or serious hazard to public safety and security, or when necessary to preserve the unity of the Empire. Basilika Decree are decided dissolution of the Domestikos and removal of the council who have committed serious violations of law or policies of insubordination. The dissolution is approved by the Imperial Council. The Government can also cancel a regional law.
The region, when it considers that a law of another region is affecting its jurisdiction, may raise the question of legitimacy before the Imperial Council.
List of Thematas
The Province or Eparches is a level of territorial division between the Themata and the Dimos. Eparches is, therefore, the second level in the administrative hierarchy of the Empire.
The Provinces is an institution designed to group the special territorial realities within Themata level to manage functions that go beyond the governorate and can not be managed by the Themata. They are also demultiplexer bodies for matters in competence of Government of the Empire, such as public security, or the regional government. the Eparchesrun by a regional governor (περιφερειάρχης, Perifereiárchis) and a regional council (περιφερειακό συμβούλιο, perifereiakó symvoúlio), being assigned by the Basileus. The Provinces are divided into regional units (περιφερειακές ενότητες, perifereiakés enótites), usually but not always coterminous with the former prefectures. The Perifereiarchis are the general authority of government, administration and management of the affairs of jurisdiction of the Eparches. He is assisted by the regional council, assigned and removed by him.The Eparches are divided into regional units (περιφερειακές ενότητες, perifereiakés enótites) is the responsible for the co-ordination at Eparchia level: since the province has mainly auxiliary functions in respect of both Region and Empire, the enótites is tasked of mere operational co-ordination, particularly during traffic blocks or similar events and campaigns.
List of Eparches
- Madereia Superior
- Kandorkia Maior
- Kandorkia Minor
- Madereia Inferior
The last local government is local. The municipalities have limited jurisdiction to the urban area and at locations that:
- have the status of the municipal territory
- respond to the status of Municipal, Community or Village or Rural Municipality.
The basic administrative action is attributed to the municipal level. The non-municipal offices are structured primarily on municipal basis. The municipality enjoys relative financial and taxation autonomy. Its budget includes, in addition to optional costs, a significant list of compulsory expenditure. The structures of government are different in the case relate to the Capital Municipalities, bigger Urban Municipalities or Villages.
The functions of municipal government are entrusted to a dimarchos, elected by the people of the dimos every 10 years .The Dimarchos is the head of the municipal administration and a central government official. On the one hand is the representative of the local community, on the other hand, however, is the terminal of the central power.
Only in the Eparchia capitals the dimarchos enjoy real autonomy in relation to municipal secretaries, the messengers of the prefects, actually invested of the government in smaller municipalities. The municipalities are further subdivided into municipal units (δημοτικές ενότητες, dimotikés enótites) and finally into communities (κοινότητες, koinótites). Although communities have their own councils, their role is purely advisory to the municipal-level government, is assisted by a council composed of at least six advisors, appointed by the Domestikos. It has an advisory role on certain matters specified by law and an executive role on all issues that the Dimarchos may wish to submit.
Enónites and Koinotites
The Enónites or municipal units and the communities (koinotites) are governed by a community council (simvoulio) made up of 7 to 11 members and led by a community president (proedros kinotitas). A deputy chairperson from a communal quarter (if the community has been further divided) may also take part in council meetings when specific issues of a communal interest are being discussed.A Dimitiko Gerousia (Municipal Senate) and town hall committee led by a dimarchos who governs municipalities. Depending on the size of the municipality, municipal councils are made up of anywhere from 11 to 41 council members representing "municipal departments" (many of which were small communities that had been merged into the municipality). In addition, the council elects 2 to 6 town hall committee members. In the case of mergers, local village or town councils (like communal quarters) may still exist to provide feedback and ideas to the larger governing body, calls to all owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans and workmen are enrolled on lists in a descending order according to their assessed wealth. The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the Dimotiko Gerousia. The executive is in the hands of an elective mayor and an gerousiastí̱s, which consists of several members elected by the Senate
The Dimotikos Gerousia is subordinated to the Domestikos in the same way as the Eparchiaki.
Council members are elected via public election every ten years on the basis of a party system. Three-fifths of all seats go to the party winning a plurality of the vote and the remaining two-fifths of the seats go to other parties based on their share of the vote on a proportional basis. The municipal council elects the town hall committee for a term of two years.
The State ultimately oversees the actions of local governments, but the Municipal and Communal Code still provides communities and municipalities with legal control over the administration of their designated areas.
Eparchiakí̱ (provincial assemblies) in all the municipalities, These bodies, one for each district and another for each province or government, were created by Konstantinos I in 3220. They consisted of a representative council (ekpróso̱pos tou symvoulíou) and of an executive board (ektelestikó symvoúlio) nominated by the municipality. The board consists of five classes of members:
- large landed proprietors (nobles owning 590 acres (2.4 km2) and over), who sit in person;
- delegates of the small landowners, including the clergy in their capacity of landed proprietors;
- delegates of the wealthier townsmen;
- delegates of the less wealthy urban classes;
- delegates of the peasants, elected by the Domestikos
The Village is a rural district (cho̱riá kai agrotikés monádes), centered on local churches and parishes. Within the Village there may be fractions, one of which resides in Agrotikós, (rural assemblies) were peasant communities, as opposed to individual farmsteads which acted as a village government and a cooperative.
Arable land was divided in sections based on soil quality and distance from the village. Each household had the right to claim one or more strips from each section depending on the number of adults in the household. The purpose of this allocation was not so much social (to each according to his needs) as it was practical (that each person pay his taxes). Strips were periodically re-allocated on the basis of a census, to ensure equitable share of the land. This was enforced by the state, which had an interest in the ability of households to pay their taxes.
Autonomous CitiesThe Independent or Autonomous cities or better known as the Megalopolis is a self-ruling city that enjoys Imperial immediacy, and as such, was subordinate only to the Basileus, as opposed to a territorial city or town which is subordinate to its ethnic administrative division. only the imperial capital of Auronopolis and the capital of Thracia have the title of Megalopolis.
Those cities are administered by Megadimarchos, but city magistrates are in charge of the duties of administration and justice. As the other Imperial Estates, they could control their own trade, and they permit little interference from the Imperial State. The Omospondiakos have juridiction in all the metropolitan area of the capital, but in the boundaries are competence of a respectively Dimarchos or Eparchia.