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"Kormenia" redirects here. For other uses, see Kormenia (disambiguation).
| Kingdom of Kormenia|
Vasileio tou Kormenías
| Motto: Elefthería i thánatos|
"Liberty or Death"
|Official language||Kormis, Hellenic, Maurian|
|King|| St. Stephanos (First)|
Menelaus IV (Last)
|Patriarch|| St. Demetrios (First)|
Leontios VI (Last)
|- Fondation||25 December, 1000|
|- Council of Beretea||1000|
|- Death of Last King||28 May, 1901|
The Kingdom of Kormenia was a kingdom in the South of Bandria Granda in the continent of Eridana, Kormenia was a monarchy that existed for almost a millenium (1000–1901). The Principality of Beretea emerged into a Orthodox kingdom by the coronation of the first king Stephanos at Beretea in 1000 or 1001, his family was knowns as the Dinasty of Saints and led the monarchy of Kormenia for 600-years.
The Kingdom of Kormenia was a multiethnic power in the region being leading trade and exerting a transcultural, economic and military hegemony in the peninsula, was also the main kingdom spread Orthodoxy throughout the region and all the Selloi and Mauryans, its capital Beretea was known throughout the peninsula as the "queen of cities" and founded by ancient korimis
The kingdom culturally and religiously unified all the tribes of the peninsula in a common kingdom under Orthodox teachings, Kormenia was a legendary power and hegemony after it was abolished by the Parsian Empire after a long decline and the fall of its capital in 2588.
Today almost all the Kormenian territories as part of Ruthenian Empire
The Kingdom of Kormenia was founded by a tribe of Korims (Hellenic: Κόροιμοι) and the kingdom, is known for various events, the appearance of San Stephanos and the Orthodox Church, the influence of the church in the culture and spirit of all the inhabitants of the region and creating the first unified state calling itself "Hellene"
Stephanos of Beretea was the founder and the first "rex Hellenorum" (king of Hellenes) of all city states of the region, although Christianity existed since the beginning of Selloi/Hellenic culture as a minor and unimportant sect san stephanos was the first to seriously study his teachings and saw its potential decided to become Orthodox and spread the word throughout the region, and enhance the Orthodoxy in the land of the Korimis, Stephanos uses the Orthodoxy to unify all the Selloi tribes around the peninsula and join in a unique flag and kingdom, called by the Selloi as "Kormenia" or "Land of the Korimis"
Markos announced his claim to the throne and rebelled against Stephanos. He also decided to marry Álmos widow, Eudoxia, in accordance with the pagan custom of levirate marriage. Although it is not impossible that Markos had already in 972 been baptized, most of his supporters were pagans, opponents of Christianity represented by Stephanos and his predominantly Korimi retinue. A charter of 1002 for the Choniates even writes of a war between "the Korimis and the Pagans" when referring to the armed conflicts between Stephanos and Markos.
Grand Prince Álmos died in 997. Stephanos soon convoked an assembly to Beretea where his supporters declared him grand prince. Initially, he only controlled the northwestern regions of the Peninsula; the rest of the territory was still dominated by tribal chieftains. Stephanos ascension to the throne was in line with the principle of primogeniture which prescribed that a father was succeeded by his son. On the other hand, it contradicted the traditional idea of seniority, according to which Álmos should have been succeeded by the most senior member of the Almodian dynasty, who was Markos Quantias at that time. Markos, who held the title of Doux of Terepesos, had for many years administered the regions of Transdanuba to the south of Lake Markasea.
Kristó states that the entire conflict between Stephanos and Markos was only a feud between two members of the Almodian dynasty, with no effect on other Korimi tribal leaders. Markos and his troops invaded the northern regions of Beretea, took many of Stephanos forts and plundered his lands. Stephanos, who "was for the first time girded with his sword", according to the Illuminated Chronicle placed the brothers Ioannes and Pavlos at the head of his own guard and nominated Bernardo to lead the royal army. The latter was a Mauryan knight who had come to Kormenia in the reign of Álmos. Ioannes and Pavlos were, according to Simon of Kazaria Gesta Hellenum et Kormenorum and the Illuminated Chronicle, "knights of Mauryan origin" who settled in Kormenia either under Álmos or in the first years of Stephanos reign.
Markos was besieging Belossia when he was informed of the arrival of Stephano's army. In the ensuing battle, Stephanos won a decisive victory over his enemies in the battle of Vlachyorum, Markos was killed on the battlefield. His body was quartered and its parts were displayed at the gates of the forts of Beretea, Terepesos, Gulasa and Volussia in order to threaten all of those who were conspiring against the young monarch.
When Saint Stephanos installed the first church in Beretea and he founded the Ecumenical Patriarchate and called a Council of Beretea to officialize his reign over the Korimis and Selloi for equal subjects, in that time installed in Beretea, designs numerous "royal reforms" to the succesion, for example, only a patriarch can name a new king and only a patriarch could cap an orthodox leader, on condition that this leader will take all steps that God grant him for good management and protection of its creed, since the Stephanos of Beretea was the first king, protector and Kormenian of the history.
While the existing political organization among the previous Korims St. Stephanos was the Principality of Kormenia , this was a rather diffuse and unstable hierarchy and organizational system institution. Saint Stephanos he divided the kingdom into counties (greek: komietíes ), eache komietie was in charge of a city state and Facing the direction of each figure placed of name of Kommá (early tyrant), which would be chosen by the Stephanos himself. Moreover, barter and payment animals was replaced by the use of money ; business taxes and tithing is also created . Regarding the legislative part , first in 1001 and then at the end of his reign sanction two codes , decrees the first 35 and second 21 . These codes contain strict measures to punish theft , adultery , murder , witchcraft ; Church also endowed the land and animals for the construction and maintenance of monasteries and churches. Moreover, these laws prescribed duties of bishops and priests , as well as Korims faithful to attend Mass and meet the sacraments and other measures of Orthodoxy.
With this he created the Kingdom of Kormenia, the first kingdom of the Selloi people, Stephanos himself understood the meaning the Korims as the "The unification of all tribes in one objetive, one god, one autorithy chosen by god himself" the first capital was Beretea and founded the first dinasty: Almodian dinasty, or better know as the "Dinasty of the Saints" Saint Stephanos soon becomes a saint to the orthodox church for his contribution of the church history.
Union with SlaviniaAfter the Battle of Orotal Mountain the Kormenian King have a personal union with the Slavinia crowning the King as "King of Kormenia and Slavinia" because the Knezevic dynasty does not have any male descendant and the crown of Slavinia belongs de jure to the daughter of the last Slavinian King, who married with the Korimi King Phillipos I of Kormenia, after the Battle the both kingdoms consolidate the Korimi power over the peninsula and considered himself as the new King of both countries.
With the crowning of King Phillipos of Kormenia as "King of Kormenia and Slavinia" in 1097 in Beretea, the realm as passed to the Almodian dynasty until 1901, when the (male) line of the dynasty died out. Then, kings from the Andreadis dynasty, who were also cognatic descendants of the Almodian dynasty, ruled the kingdoms. Later centuries were characterized by conflicts with the Parsians, who sacked Beretea in 2242, competition with Arcadia for control over coastal cities, and internal warfare among Kormenia's nobility. Various powerful nobles emerged in the time period, like Pavlos Mavrodoukas and Isidoros of Sagona, who secured de facto independence for their realms. The Parsian incursion into Eridana in the 22th century significantly reduced Kormenian territories and left the country weak and divided.
Some of the terms of Phillipo's coronation and the later status of the Slavinian nobles are detailed in the Pacta Conventa, a document written in the 9th century. The precise terms of this relationship became a matter of dispute in the 19th century; nonetheless, even under dynastic union with Kormenia, institutions of separate Slavian statehood were maintained throughout the Sabor (an assembly of Slavian nobles) and the ban (viceroy). In addition, the Slavian nobles retained their lands and titles.
Colonization and Expansion
Unsuccessful wars with the Principality of Arcadia and other neighboring states characterized the reign of Sebastiano I who succeeded his father in 1100. The earliest mention of the new King from the same year is connected to his first war. They lived in scattered communities along the borders, but in the next century their groups were moved to the easternmost regions of Massalia. Sebastiano I died childless in 1120. Under the blind Sebastiano II, the kingdom was administered by his queen, Helena of Rotea who annihilated his opposition by ordering its leaders' massacre. Indeed, Boris Kalamanos, an alleged son of King Phillipos received no internal support against the king.
Sebastiano II's son, Archemorus II who succeeded his father in 1147 adopted an active foreign policy. For instance, he supported Arcadian nobles against foreign treats. He promoted the colonization of the border zones. various Selloi and Maurian "guests" arrived in great numbers and settled in the northern region (Kandorkia Maior) and in southern Madereia Inferior. He even recruited Muslim warriors in the eastern steppes to serve in his army. Abu Hamid, a Muslim traveler from Aljukia refers to mountains that "contain lots of silver and gold", which points at the importance of mining and gold panning already around 1170.Sebastiano II was succeeded in 1160 by his eldest son, Laomedon (1160-1184). However, his uncles, Arsenios and Stephanos claimed the crown for themselves. Arcadian Princes took advantage of the internal conflicts and forced the young king to cede western region to the Arcadians in 1165.Menelaos I set an example for the development of towns by granting liberties to the Mauryan "guests" in Malossa, including their immunity of the jurisdiction of the local jurisdiction.
When Menelaos I died childless in 11218, his brother, Apolonios ascended the throne. He reconquered the western region. A contemporary list shows that more than 50 percent of his revenues derived from the annual renewal of the silver currency, and from tolls, ferries and markets. According to the list, his total income was the equivalent of 32 tonnes of silver per year, but this number is clearly exaggerated. The historian Nikolaos Choniates suggests an annual income of 23 tonnes of silver, but even this sum would have been the double of contemporary Aquitanian monarchs' yearly income.
Apolonios emphasized the importance of making records on judicial proceedings, which substantiates later Kormenian chronicles' report on his order of the obligatory use of written petitions. Landowners also started to put into writing their transactions, which led to the appearance of the so-called "places of authentication", that is cathedral chapters and monasteries authorized to issue deeds. Their emergence also attests to the employment of an educated staff. Indeed, students from the kingdom studied at the universities of foreign nations since 1200.
Further aspects of the 12th-century Selloi culture can also be detected in Apolonios kingdom. His palace at Beretea was built in the early Selloi style.
DeclineThe Invasion of Comans occupied and thoroughly plundered the territories east of the river Danuba. They crossed the river when it was frozen in early 1542. the kingdom did not cease to exist, since the invaders could not take a number of fortresses. Furthermore, Batu Khan ordered the withdrawal of all his troops when he was informed of the death of the Great Khan in 1550.
The invasion and the famine following it had catastrophic demographic consequences. At least 15 percent of the population died or disappeared. Transcontinental trading routes disintegrated, causing the decline of Beretea, Massalia and other traditional centers of commerce. Local Muslim communities ceased to exist, showing that they suffered especially heavy losses, after 200 years the kingdom was able to recover.
Manuel II (1650-1683) abandoned his attempts to recover former crown lands after the Coman withdrawal. Instead, he granted large estates to his supporters, and urged them to construct stone-and-mortar castles. He initiated a new wave of colonization which resulted in the arrival of a number of Selloi, Mauryans, Parsians, Rúmis and Sarbians. The king reinvited the Selloi people settling along the Danuba. A group of Alans, the ancestors of the Jassic people seems to have settled in the kingdom around the same time.
New villages appeared which consisted of timber houses built side by side in equal parcels of lands. For instance, the settlement network of the so far scarcely inhabited forests of the Western Ruthenia began to develop under Manuel II. Huts disappeared and new rural houses consisting of a living room, a kitchen and a pantry were built. The most advanced agricultural techniques, including asymmetric heavy ploughs, also spread in the whole kingdom.
Internal migration was likewise instrumental in the development of the new domains emerging in former royal lands. The new landholders granted personal freedom and more favorable financial conditions to those who arrived in their estates, which also enabled the peasants who decided not to move to improve their position. Manuel II granted privileges to more than a dozen of towns, including the border villages.
Pavlos II (1700-1737) adopted an expansionist foreign policy. For instance, The Prince of Arcadia died fighting against Kormenian troops in 1730, and Pavlos II's son-in-law,Menelaos III annexed a number of territories along the kingdom's southern frontiers. However, conflicts between the elderly monarch and his heir, Andronikos caused a civil war in the 1480s.
Andronikos III (1590-1612) and his son jointly confirmed the liberties of the royal servants, hereafter known as noblemen in 1600. By that time, "true noblemen" were legally differentiated from other landholders.They held their estates free of any obligation, but everybody else (even the ecclesiastic nobles and other "conditional nobles") owned services to their lords in exchange for the lands they held. In growing number of counties, local nobility acquired the right to elect four or two "judges of the nobles" to represent them in official procedures. The idea of equating the Kormenian "nation" with the community of noblemen also emerged in this period, creating a incipient imperialism among the nobles and aristocrats of Kormenia.The wealthiest landholders forced the lesser nobles to join their retinue which increased their power. One of the barons, Nicephoros Doukas attack the royal landholding of Kormenia, causing the crowning of Tivadar, 3 years later he died because a poisoning of his brother Pavlos I (1615-1650) this provoque a series of civil wars between brothers and noble families during 300 years.
Death of Last King
When Menelaos IV was murdered in 1901, the Patriarchate declared the kingdom a vacant fief and granted it to his sister's son, Alexios of Carantia However, the majority of the Kormenian lords supported Emmanuel, the grandson of Arsenios (1842-1860), although his father's legitimacy was dubious. He was the first monarch to take an oath on respecting the liberties of the Church and the nobility before his coronation. He regularly convoked the prelates, the lords and the noblemen's representatives to assemblies known as Diets, which started to develop into a legislative body.
- Principality of Kormenia
- Empire of Kormenia
- List of Kormenian monarchs
- Sultanate of Parsia
- The Great War