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Under the administrations of Ringo 3070-3084 and Keppy 3084-3100 and following the dispute between the Soviet Socialist Chiawa and The New Republic of Wisconsin, it became clear that there was a need for reform within the structures of the Soviet Federation especially in the conventional executive and also for the need for a Judicial branch of government that would be designed to deal with internal conflicts and to arbitrate neutrally and fairly. In response to this, the IRComm was estiblished and the first gathering was designed to deal with the events surrounding the recent "Kaput Incident." After the Kaput incident and the following dispute between John and BBJBS, the IRComm became the de facto mandatory judicial committee that dealt with matters of conflict and the dispensing of Justice without any formal powers of enforcement.

After peace was estiblished under the second Keppy administration, there was discussions on whether that rather more vast constitutional reforms take place to consolidate stronger governance domestically and abroad. It was concluded that reforms could be an option and Devlin from the Democratic Republic of Plato volunteered to draft a constitution for the Soviet Federation that would require ratification. The Constitution draft however was not completed until 3114. The Constitution draft was then placed on the Wiki to display and receive judgement. It was well-recieved and the vast majority of Soviets supported its adoption.

Draft

Preamble - Ideological Statement

"We, the vanguard for socialism, will smash oppression. NOT ONE STEP BACKWARDS."


Section 1: The Federation

Article 1.0

The Soviet Federation is a group of nation-states united under the banner of Socialism and a long standing tradition of Democracy.

Article 1.1

The Soviet Federation hereby affirms its inalienable, indeasible, and sovereign right to choose its own form of governance, to determine its collected relations with other Federations, and to develop its life, political, economic and cultural, in accordance with its own genius and traditions.

Article 1.2

The name of the Federation is the Soviet Federation.

Article 1.3

The Soviet Federation is a soveriegn collection of allied democratics states.

Article 1.4

1.All powers of Government, legislative, executive and judicial, derive from the peoples of the Soviet membership, whose right it is to designate the rulers of the Federation and, in final appeal, to decide all questions of common federal policy, according to the requirements of the common good.
2.These powers of government are exercisable only by or on the authority of the organs of federation, its institutions and its members, estiblished by the constitution.

Acticle 1.5

The Federation flag is the Red colour of Socialism and the Yellow Star of the Soviets.

Article 1.6

All peoples that have either been born into or joined the Soviet Federation through the unity of member states, has the right to be called a Soviet, in accordance with individual national law and customs, and along with individual national identity.

Article 1.7

The future acquisition and loss of Soviet Nationality and citizenship shall be determined in accordance with Soviet Common Law and policy.

Article 1.8

Fidelity to the Soviet Federation are fundamental political duties to all citizens of all nationalities and customs as long as they are members of the Soviet Federation.

Article 1.9

All natural resources within the jurisdiction of the Soviet Parliament and Government institutions estiblished by this constitution and all royalties and franchises within that jurisdiction belong to the individual member state for which it is situated. It is therefore that state or national governments authority that is given influence on the use of these individual resources. All resources are therefore subject to all estates and interests therein for the time being lawfully vested in any person or body, in accordance with Soviet Laws of common ownership.

Section 2: The Premier

Article 2.0

There shall be a Leader of the Soviet Federation, with the title of Premier of the Soviet Federation and Chairman of the Cabinet, herein called either the Premier and Chairman, who shall take precedence over all members and persons in the Federation and who shall exercise and perform the powers and functions conferred on the Premier by this Constitution and by Soviet Law. The Premier shall be both Head of Federation (state) and the Head of government (executive branch).

Article 2.1

1.The Premier will be the leader of the largest party or the head of a coalition of parties. Likewise the Premier may be an individual
2.The Premier, shall be elected by direct vote of the people.
3.Every nation, in accordance with population size shall have the right to vote at an election for the Chair and his affiliated administration.
4.The Premier, shall be elected through the electoral system of Proportional Representation (PR) meaning the candidate with the most votes wins. The amount of votes casted in a Presidential race for each state is in proportion to the population of that state and may be distributed to each candidate at the disgression of that state.

Article 2.2

The Premier shall hold office for a maximum of seven years from the date upon which he enters upon his office, unless before the expiration of that period he resigns, or is removed from office, or becomes permanently incapacitated or inactive, such incapacity being estiblished only to the Satisfaction and power of the Soviet Parliament, if ceded this power by the Judicial branch of the Soviet Federation.

Article 2.3

The Premier who holds, or who has held, office as Chair, shall be eligible for re-election to that office an unlimited amount of terms, but only if elected. The election for the office of Premier or General Election shall be held no later than the last month of the year in which his/her term of office and parliament expires.

Article 2.4

It is mandatory for the Premier to convene Parliament atleast once every term and it is mandatory for the general membership, each of whom are members of the Soviet Parliament (MSP), to attend to discuss matters concerning the Federation as a whole or matters for individual members. The Premier may also call parliament at his discretion with good reason provided.

Article 2.5

Any member of the Soviet Federation has to right to run in a General Election. However there are some regulations that the candidate must meet:
1.The leader must have ten game years of simcountry experience.
2.The leader must be leader of a country that is consistently breaking even (Financial Index of at least 95).
3.The leader have contributed to the Soviet Federation Wiki and also must have a page for his or her own country.
4.The leader must be free of Judicial restrictions and restraints that may be placed on that candidate for whatever reason.

Article 2.6

General Elections will be formally carried out by the Electoral General. General Elections will be conducted through in-game messaging to the Electoral General. These elections will also be documented on the wiki, with game sites polls acting as a formality.

Article 2.7

A Premier may be impeached for misconduct and misuse of the constitutional powers granted to him, on the judgement of the
Soviet Supreme Court panel which is independant from the executive. In which case the impeachment motion will be subject to a vote by the membership. A two thirds majority must be in favour to dismiss the Premier and initiate another election. This process may also be applied to any member of the Cabinet, in which in the case of dismissal the Premier is entitled to appoint another capable member to that poisiton. The entire Cabinet may also be held accountable by the Legislature when at least 5 members of the Parliament or General membership, which may include Cabinet ministers demand a vote on their confidence of the government. These members must be of a 5 individual members or individuals. This agreement will then initiate a Vote of No Confidence in which a two thirds majority is also needed to either consolidate or depose the governing adminstration.

Article 2.8

The Premier is the sole source of power and authority in the Soviet Federation, as head of the Parliament and Cabinet, the Premier directs policy of the Soviet Federation and its government to the extent of the individuals ideas and motives. Therefore the Premier selects all positions in the Cabinet with his/her power of patronage. He appoints the position of Solicitor-General that holds a seat in the Soviet Supreme Court as a Judge or Arbitrator-General, although it is not a executive position and this position may not be present at judicial proceedings that effect the Cabinet (see Article 5.2). He also has the power of dissolution that grants the Premier the power to dissolve the Parliament and call another election. He holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Federation although this power is subject to the individual member states military situation and its attitude towards the joint Soviet military authorities. Therefore the power of Soviet militaries are held by individual member states within parliament unless changed by Soviet Law. The Premier also has the duty to grant the award of the Soviet Service Star to anyone who has shown great service to betterment of the Soviet Federation. This duty is not mandatory however.

Article 2.9

Emergency powers may be granted to the Premier on the consent of the Legislature and General Membership in the case of an international emergency where the Federation finds itself constrained. The Premier may call for an Emergency powers vote known as an Emergency Powers Act, but must explain why it is needed. Any member may also call for the emergency powers to be granted with the support of 5 members in agreement to the proposal. A total of a two-thirds majority is needed for the Premier to obtain these emergency powers. The emergency powers grant the chair the power to pass laws without the consent of the Legislature and General Membership through Decree, in which all of the membership must abid by the Premier orders or risk a free vote of eviction. The Premier may not make any amendments to this Constitution while the Emergency Powers Act is in effect. The Premier shall not be accountable to the Soviet Supreme Court in the time that he or she has emergency powers granted upon them but may well be accountable to a vote of no confidence which may be initiated by an agreement of 6 members. General Elections will be held as per usual if these powers are still granted and if another new incumbent chair is selected, the powers will no longer apply to the office. Therefore if either the re-elected Premier or new Premier wishes to gain or regain the emergency powers with good reason provided, there must be a vote to decide whether the powers shall be granted.

Section 3: The Executive

Article 3.0

The Executive is the first branch of Government of the Soviet Federation. It is formally called the Cabinet of the Soviet Federation. It is made up of various departments including and directed and chaired by the Premier. The Premier may give executive orders and directives to each member of the Cabinet according to their position, jurisdiction and ability, in which the they must obey in the most productive and efficient way possible.

Article 3.1

The Cabinet is composed of individual members of the Soviet Federation, who are selected and appointed by the elected Premier and is usually from within a political party. The Chairman of the Cabinet can hold another position in the Cabinet in the event that a particular position is temporarily vacant, but the position must be filled at the soonest convenience on appointment by the chair. The Chair may dismiss or appoint new members to the Executive at his and the members discretion.

Article 3.2

The executive is made up of 4 positions or Federation-Ministers and the Chairman of the Cabinet, who is Premier of the Federation. Each minister is head of a specific Department. The Departments are listed below:

-Department of the Interior
-Department of Finance
-Department of Defence
-Department of Foreign Affairs
-Office of the Chairperson (Elected Head) (Premier)

Article 3.3

Interior
The Department of the Interior is informally called and situated at the Interior Ministry in the Capital of the Federation. It holds jurisdiction over the collection of data and statistics and therefore produces Census information for the use of the Government and of the General Membership. It also holds jurisdiction over Information and Propaganda literature that is passed between Federation Government and the General membership and Parliament. The Information that can be released can be released at the discretion of the Head of Department and the Propaganda literature may be created by the department but released on the authorisation of the chair. It also functions as the arms of the government and can enforce Soviet Common Law. The responsibility of heading the Department is held by the Federation-Minister for the Interior. The term of office of the Minister is linked to the Chair as the chair has the power to appoint or dismiss the Minister at his or her discretion with good reason provided. Therefore the average term of office of the minister is subject to the chairs term of office and judgement based on how efficient the individual minister is, and is directly linked to the term of office of the chairperson aswell. Its power is subject and answerable to the chair who holds the elected mandate and therefore has superior control over the Federation-Minister and Department.

Article 3.4

Finance
The Department of Finance is informally called and situated at the Economics and Finance Bureau in the Capital of the Soviet Federation. It holds jurisdiction over the collective finances of the Soviet Federation through administration of the Soviet Economic Common Market or SovECON, and also advises and directs individual member states who are in need of economic help or direction. There are no formal controls granted upon the department which may be exercised to give orders to individual members states. But this may be the case if an individual economy grants the department financial powers which the member in question must obey in order to achieve economic stability and growth or if the Federation-Minister for Finance can call on and gain the approval of the Chairman to initate a Bill that, if passed into law enables the Federation-Minister and Chairman to have economic sovereignty over the economy in question and therefore the individual member must obey the orders of the Federation-Minister or Chairman to achieve economic stability and growth. The indiviual member state economy in question ultimately has the final say in this process but failure to act in accordance with the law granting the Federation-Minister fiscal powers may be followed up by the Internal Review Committee to determine the final outcome for dominance between the two parties. The responsibility of heading the Department is held by the Federation-Minister for Finance. The term of office of the Minister is linked to the Chair as the chair has the power to appoint or dismiss the Minister at his or her discretion with good reason provided. Therefore the average term of office of the minister is subject to the chairs term of office and judgement based on how efficient the individual minister is, and is directly linked to the term of office of the chairperson aswell. Its power is subject and answerable to the chair who holds the elected mandate and therefore has superior control over the Federation-Minister and Department.

Article 3.5

Defence
The Department of Defence is also called the Soviet Espionage and Military Commission or SovEMC and its headquarters are situated in the Capital of the Soviet Federation. It holds jurisdiction over the joint military affairs of the Soviet Federation. The commission's primary function in peace time is to provide advice and logistical support to individual member state militaries. In wartime or time of great emergency, the power to issue orders or directives to individual member states which must be obeyed, must be brought before the membership through the chairman (unless the Chair holds emergency powers through the Emergency Powers Act then in which case the Chair may simply confer or share these military directive powers over to the SovEMC formally), in which a majority is needed to have this power given to the SovEMC. Also, due to the Federal nature of Soviet Military Integration the SovEMC may work very closely with the Foreign Affairs Department and Chair to further Soviet Influence and progress throughout the world. The responsibility of heading the Department is held by the Federation-Minister for Defence, or what is also called in wartime, the Chief of Staff of the Joint Soviet Armed Forces. The term of office of the Minister is linked to the Chair as the chair has the power to appoint or dismiss the Minister at his or her discretion with good reason provided. Therefore the average term of office of the minister is subject to the chairs term of office and judgement based on how efficient the individual minister is, and is directly linked to the term of office of the chairperson aswell. Its power is subject and answerable to the chair who holds the elected mandate and therefore has superior control over the Federation-Minister and Department.

Article 3.6

Foreign Affairs
The Department of Foreign Affairs is also called the Foreign Office and the Office of the Diplomatic Liaison or Dipliais and its headquarters are situated in the Capital of the Soviet Federation. It holds jurisdiction over the Foreign Relations of the Soviet Federation between individual states and other Federations and also acts a mouthpiece for other federations and foreign Presidents and foreign news for the Soviet Federation. The Minister carries out foreign missions and represents the Federation abroad, on the behalf of the President or Chairman. The responsibility of heading the Department is held by the Federation-Minister for Foreign Affairs. The term of office of the Minister is linked to the Chair as the chair has the power to appoint or dismiss the Minister at his or her discretion with good reason provided. Therefore the average term of office of the minister is subject to the chairs term of office and judgement based on how efficient the individual minister is, and is directly linked to the term of office of the chairperson aswell. Its power is subject and answerable to the chair who holds the elected mandate and therefore has superior control over the Federation-Minister and Department.

Article 3.7

Office of the Premier (Elected Representative and core of the Government)
The Premier is the head of the executive branch of government. He is the elected body and skeleton of the government as without the chair there would be no authority as his authority is vested in him by the people every 7 years. So in effect the power and existence of government is determined every 7 years and the power of the Premier is distributed throughout the executive departments in accordance with this Constitution. The patronage that the Premier exercises every 7 years or less (due to possibly cabinet reshuffles) with the executive cabinet are routine and are regular and necessary events in the organs of democratic and transparent government. The Headquaters of the Premier are situated in the Capital Government Buildings of the Capital city of the Soviet Federation.

Section 4: The Legislature and General Membership

Article 4.0

The Legislature of the Soviet Federation is Unicameral and therefore contains one house for which political power is drawn. It is known as the Parliament of the Soviet Federation or the Soviet Parliament. There are currently 350 seats in the Soviet Parliament.

Article 4.1

The Legislature is made up of political parties with different views. The make up of party representation is determined by the percentage the party gets in general elections.

Article 4.2

After a General Election which are to be held every 7 years or sooner, amount of Seats

Article 4.3

Parliamentary Sessions can be called by any member of the legislature including that of the executive. The executive can therefore officially call a parliamentary session whereby it is mandatory for members of the Soviet Parliament to attend. These Parliamentary sessions are held in the chatroom of the Soviet Federation and therefore any use of the chatroom can be refered to as Parliament-In-Session. Similarly any parliamentary session called by a normal member of the Parliament can surround a particular issue or can be a place for general discussion, deliberation and debate.

Article 4.4

Communication and correspondence conducted publicly through the messages to the Federation memberships can be refered to as Parliamentary sessions but cannot be refered to as Parliament-In-Session. It must be refered to as Parliament-Out-Of-Session. Since conversation can be, but usually is not binding in public messaging as it can be general and casual conversation (Private messages do not relate to legislative practise). Decisions and democratic votes must be called to make a decision on a particular Federation law. Votes that are called by the Cabinet on a partcular issue or law are known as Public Bills as they are then officially going through the Legislature and if they are passed become Federation law. Therefore these laws are based around the Chairs and executive policy. These are officially proposed by the Premier and must be sponsored by the Cabinet. A motion or Act that is called by the executive regarding a particular issue or event is voted upon at the request of the government and if passed, is known as an Act of Parliament. All votes in Parliament are conducted by the Electoral General, through public messaging.

Article 4.5

Official executive-called parliamentary sessions can be called in circumstances surrounding an issue that relates to any Federation-Minister and his or her Ministry and the topic discussed may be subject to request of that Federation-Minister. Therefore a session called officially by the Premier can relate to any issue regarding the Federation and the outcome should serve the greater good for the Soviet Federation and its members.

Article 4.6

The Cabinet is subject to oversight from everyone in the Federation. So therefore, Parliament can scutinise and hold to account the work the executive through parliamentary sessions.

Article 4.7

Any amendments or changes proposed to the constitution must be done so through a democratic vote on the proposal of the Premier, sponsored by the Cabinet. The proposals for the amendments must first be brought before and approved by the Soviet Supreme Court as it is there mandate to enforce and protect the constitution. The amendment requires a two thirds majority to be passed in the legislature and therefore changed.

Article 4.8

Governance
The Centre for Governance is an office in which is independant from the executive. It holds jurisdiction over the democratic processes of the Federation and formally carries out elections and distributes formally the mandates of elected individuals. It also is the office of the Speaker of the House in which conducts debates. The responsibility of heading the Department is handled by the Speaker or the Electoral General. It is a permanent seat and may not be altered by the Premier or any individual, unless there is a formal agreement between the Premier and the Electoral General.

Section 5: The Judiciary

Article 5.0

The system by which serves justice in the Soviet Federation through a courts system is meant to be independant and neutral from the other two branches of Government.

Article 5.1

The Judicial institution that deals with matters of inquiry and review are carried out by the Soviet Supreme Court (SSC) which may also be refered to as the Soviet Court of Justice (SCJ).

Article 5.2

The panel of the Soviet Supreme Court are a group of three Judges (so as to ensure a unanimous decision) that are known as Arbitrators or officially Arbitrator-Generals (AG's) and the make a specific committee that distributes Federation level justice. Judges who are on the panel officially carry the abbreviation AG after their name. Two judges are elected every 20 years in what are known as Judicial Ballots and are known as Permanent Arbitrator-Generals (pe-AG), whereas one Judge is appointed by a Premier every 7 years or sooner according to the administative circumstances at the time. This Judge is known by the Premier when being appointed as the Solicitor-General or Executive Arbitrator-General (e-AG). In reviews or inquiries concerning the executives conduct, the Solicitor-General is required not to take a seat in proceedings and a provisional Arbitrator-General (pr-AG) will conduct business regarding government as to provide a non-biased result. This provisional judge shall be elected through secret ballot conducted through the electoral general. No judge can be member of the executive (the Solicitor-General is not an executive position although it is appointed by the chair).

Article 5.3

Cases that are brought to the Soviet Supreme Court can be classified into two categories of trial. The two classes are Judicial Reviews and Judicial Inquiries (also known as Public Inquiries) and they can be based on any sort of matter. A judicial review examines evidence but cannot call individuals as witnesses. No other except the judges may attend review proceedings. Judicial or Public Inquiries has the power to examine evidences and call witnesses to account for which is mandatory for the witnesses to attend. Any individual may watch a public inquiry but are disallowed from contributing to the proceedings if the individual has no legal obligation to be there.

Article 5.4

The Judge that has been agreed upon by the panel to lead the case is known as the Head Arbitrator and therefore his or her name will determine the title of either the review or inquiry, unless the panel decides to name it after another name that is relevant to the case.

Article 5.5

The Premier reserves the power to call a Judicial Inquiry into any matter regarding anything that effects the Federation, but not a judicial review. Judicial reviews can be called by the membership if there is concern over a particular matter and there is support from 4 memberstates or over.

Article 5.6

The outcome of a Judicial review will result in what is known as a Mandatory Review Report (MRR) that is published to the membership, entitled after the formal name of the case, the title Mandatory Review Report and accompanied with the year of publish. These reports, if associated with the government can serve to either scrutinise or praise the executive. The mandatory review report can either result in the case being acquitted or being advanced into a judicial inquiry that can carry sentencing if required.

Article 5.7

The outcome of a Judicial Inquiry or Public Inquiry will result in what is known as a Mandatory Inquiry Report (MIR) that is published to the membership, entitled after the formal name of the case, the title Mandatory Inquiry Report and accompanied with the year of publish. These reports, if associated with the government can serve to either scrutinise or praise the executive. The mandatory inquiry report can either result in the case being acquitted, sentencing for whatever party or individual involved according to the findings, if any or Impeachment of the Premier of the Executive.

Article 5.8

Judicial practises are strictly within the jurisdiction of the collective wealth of the Soviet Federation and therefore may not mean that matters from within a individual memberstates may be scrutinised unless that member requests a judicial review from the Supreme Soviet Court or a Judicial Inquiry from the Premier or if it effects another member and causes conflict.

Section 6: The Common Market

Article 6.0

The Soviet Common Market is the Economic network that binds the economies of memberstates and Enterpises together. It is known as the Soviet Economic Single Market or SovECON

Article 6.1

Political Sovereignty over the Common Market is exercised by the Cabinet and by the Premier. The administration of the usage of the Common Market is carried out by the Federation-Minister for Finance.

Article 6.2

Offer Contracts:
Corporations should at least offer 35% of their production level last month

Article 6.3

Common Market Regulations:
New members. The voting period is 8 months. A majority of 45% is required.
Evicting members. The voting period is 10 months. A majority of 45% is required.
New Rules. The voting period is 10 months. A majority of 45% is required

Section 7: Elections and Voting Procedures

Article 7.0

General Elections are elections that determine the administration of the Federation and they occur every 7 years to elect party through the electoral system of PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION. These elections are conducted through the Electoral General via Secret Ballot.

Article 7.1

Ballot elections are elections that determine two judges or permanent Arbitrator-Generals that sit on Judicial Reviews or Inquiries. They occur every 20 years and are conducted through FIRST PAST THE POST, with the first and second candidates winning the seats.

Article 7.2

Public Bills called by the Government must achieve a simple majority in the Soviet Parliament to pass and to become Acts of Parliament or Law. These laws or Acts whatever they may be individually named must be recorded on the Federation Wiki.

Section 8: Federation Pact Rules

Article 8.0

Share Resources:
Defensive resources are shared in case of war for 85 %

Article 8.1

Federation Regulations:
War. The voting period is 5 months. A majority of 70% is required.
Evicting countries. The voting period is 5 months. A majority of 60% is required.
New chairman. The voting period is 5 months. A majority of 45% is required.
New Rules. The voting period is 5 months. A majority of 45% is required.

Section 9: The Wiki

Article 9.0

All records and documents regarding or associated with the Soviet Federation and it Common Market must be recorded on the SimCountry Wiki: http://simcountry.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page

Footnotes

The Constitution of the Soviet Federation is not meant to subvert the Charter of the Soviet Federation, but to rather update, advance and supercede it as the official written document where power is distributed.
Written by President Devlin, Democratic Republic of Plato

c. 3114

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